Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership: Fifth Report follows on four previous reviews of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, which was the predecessor of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. The U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability) vision, according to the charter of the Partnership, is this: American consumers have a broad range of affordable personal transportation choices that reduce petroleum consumption and significantly reduce harmful emissions from the transportation sector. Its mission is as follows: accelera
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 504: Strategic Program Delivery Methods explores holistic approaches to maximizing the benefits of time and cost savings when delivering transportation programs, rather than delivering individual projects. While a considerable amount of published research has focused on the process of selecting an optimal project delivery method, this report documents how implementing a variety of delivery methods strategically for a program of projects can improve the delivery of the entire program.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 855: An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. This report builds upon preliminary engineering of a design project, including developing the purpose and need. In particular, it provides additional contexts beyond urban and rural, facilitates accommodation of modes other than personal vehicles and adds overlays for transit and freight. Two case studies illustrating application of the expanded system to actual projects are included.
The ability to meet many of society’s challenges requires an understanding of human behavior. From health to education to business to homeland security, the social and behavioral sciences (SBS)—which include psychology, political science, economics, anthropology, and sociology—contribute to solving important problems for individuals, organizations, and society. Although they are taught widely at the university level, they have far less presence in K-12 education where students’ core knowledge is shaped. To better understand contemporary efforts and to build upon earlier efforts to ex
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 509: Highway Worker Safety identifies how state departments of transportation (DOTs) implement policies using highway worker safety and health data to reduce injuries and manage risk. The report is a synthesis of current proactive safety practices that will be useful when developing or updating policies, programs, or tools to minimize injuries, fatalities, and risk. The study also identifies gaps in knowledge and future research needs.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 508: Data Management and Governance Practices develops a collection of transportation agency data management practices and experiences. The report demonstrates how agencies currently access, manage, use, and share data.
Volcanic eruptions are common, with more than 50 volcanic eruptions in the United States alone in the past 31 years. These eruptions can have devastating economic and social consequences, even at great distances from the volcano. Fortunately many eruptions are preceded by unrest that can be detected using ground, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. Data from these instruments, combined with basic understanding of how volcanoes work, form the basis for forecasting eruptions—where, when, how big, how long, and the consequences. Accurate forecasts of the likelihood and magnitude of an erupt
A congressionally mandated study carried out in 2013-2014 led to the November 2014 report A New Foundation for the Nuclear Enterprise. That report summarizes the panel’s findings on the current health of the enterprise, examines the root causes of its governance challenges, and offers the panel’s recommendations to address the identified problems. It concludes that the existing governance structures and many of the practices of the enterprise are inefficient and ineffective, thereby putting the entire enterprise at risk over the long term. It offers recommendations to put the entire
Recent years have yielded significant advances in computing and communication technologies, with profound impacts on society. Technology is transforming the way we work, play, and interact with others. From these technological capabilities, new industries, organizational forms, and business models are emerging. Technological advances can create enormous economic and other benefits, but can also lead to significant changes for workers. IT and automation can change the way work is conducted, by augmenting or replacing workers in specific tasks. This can shift the demand for some types of human
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 192: Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Guidebook on Planning and Managing Park-and-Ride. The report provides approaches to managing park-and-ride facilities, from developing the park-and-ride concept for a community to day-to-day management. Key themes include design, implementation, operations, and maintenance of these facilities.
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 128: Practices for Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prior
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 507: Traffic Signal Preemption at Intersections Near Highway–Rail Grade Crossings documents the current practices of traffic signal preemption deployed at intersections adjacent to railway grade crossing in both the United States and Canada. The study provides information on practices dealing with traffic signal preemption, maintenance, funding, and operations.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 231: Challenges to CV and AV Applications in Truck Freight Operations explores connected vehicle (CV) and automated vehicle (AV) technology, focusing on heavy trucking. The report identifies existing and emerging freight regulatory, planning, policy, and operational environments and challenges for connected and autonomous truck technologies. The report examines barriers and opportunities that the public and private sector may face when implementing these technologies in freight operations. In addition, the report ex
Communities represent the front line in addressing many behavioral health conditions that children, adolescents, young adults, and their families have to face. These conditions are not rare: during their lifetimes, almost half of all Americans will meet one or more clinical criteria for behavioral health or substance abuse disorders. These disorders impose a tremendous personal burden on the affected individuals and their families, as well as substantial costs on the broader society. The first onset of such conditions is usually in childhood or adolescence, and communities can be a key opportu
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 839: A Performance-Based Highway Geometric Design Process reviews the evolution of highway design, presents several key principles for today’s design challenges, provides suggestions for a new highway geometric design process, and demonstrates the value of the process through six case studies. The new process focuses on the transportation performance of the design rather than the selection of values from tables of dimensions applied across the range of facility types.
TRB's Committee on the Review of Department of Transportation (DOT) Testing of Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Brakes has prepared a letter report reviewing DOT’s plan to evaluate the emergency performance of ECP brakes with other braking systems. Congress directed DOT to reconsider the ECP braking requirement for certain trains carrying high-hazard flammable liquids. The report recommends improvements to ensure that DOT's plan will lead to objective, accurate, and reliable tests of key assumptions the department made in comparing ECP emergency braking performance to other braking
The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE) is responsible for the safe cleanup of sites used for nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is the most volumetrically significant waste stream generated by the DOE cleanup program. LLW is also generated through commercial activities such as nuclear power plant operations and medical treatments. The laws and regulations related to the disposal of LLW in the United States have evolved over time and across agencies and states, resulting in a complex regu
The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and most deadly Ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two separate outbreaks were identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and South Sudan (then Sudan). However, because all Ebola outbreaks prior to that in West Africa in 2014–2015 were relatively isolated and of short duration, little was known about how to best manage patients to improve survival, and there were no approved therapeutics or
Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been providing policymakers, educators, and the public with reports on academic performance and progress of the nation’s students. The assessment is given periodically in a variety of subjects: mathematics, reading, writing, science, the arts, civics, economics, geography, U.S. history, and technology and engineering literacy. NAEP is given to representative samples of students across the U.S. to assess the educational progress of the nation as a whole. Since 1992, NAEP results have been reported in relation to three achi
The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations in which research is conducted encourage those involved to exemplify these values in every step of the research process. Understanding the dynamics that support – or distort – practices that uphold the integrity of research by all participants ensures that the research enterprise advances knowledge. The 1992 report Responsible Science: Ensuring t
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a mission and regulatory responsibility to protect human health and the environment. EPA’s pursuit of that goal includes a variety of research activities involving human subjects, such as epidemiologic studies and surveys. Those research activities also involve studies of individuals who volunteer to be exposed to air pollutants intentionally in controlled laboratory settings so that measurements can be made of transient and reversible biomarker or physiologic responses to those exposures that can indicate pathways of toxicity and mechanisms
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 172: Guidebook for Considering Life-Cycle Costs in Airport Asset Procurement explores how other industries use the total cost of ownership (TCO) approach for initial procurement, and how to integrate this into future airport procurement practices. A TCO Tool and five instructional videos on how to use the TCO Tool accompany the report
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 171: Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports provides guidance to airport personnel when assisting victims and families affected by an aviation disaster. This guidebook incorporates practices for planning an effective response while coordinating with different partners. The guidance is adaptable to both general aviation and commercial service airports of any size. The guidebook includes a description of key terminology, federal regulatory and statutory requirements, history and background of the A
The Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas is the primary source of water for one of the fastest growing cities in the United States, San Antonio, and it also supplies irrigation water to thousands of farmers and livestock operators. It is also is the source water for several springs and rivers, including the two largest freshwater springs in Texas that form the San Marcos and Comal Rivers. The unique habitat afforded by these spring-fed rivers has led to the development of species that are found in no other locations on Earth. Due to the potential for variations in spring flow caused by both
The purpose of accreditation is to build a competent health workforce by ensuring the quality of training taking place within those institutions that have met certain criteria. It is the combination of institution or program accreditation with individual licensure—for confirming practitioner competence—that governments and professions use to reassure the public of the capability of its health workforce. Accreditation offers educational quality assurance to students, governments, ministries, and society. Given the rapid changes in society, health, and health care, the National Academies o
The Everglades ecosystem is vast, stretching more than 200 miles from Orlando to Florida Bay, and Everglades National Park is but a part located at the southern end. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the historical Everglades has been reduced to half of its original size, and what remains is not the pristine ecosystem many image it to be, but one that has been highly engineered and otherwise heavily influenced, and is intensely managed by humans. Rather than slowly flowing southward in a broad river of grass, water moves through a maze of canals, levees, pump stations, and hydraulic control
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Prorgram (ACRP) Research Report 170: Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports offers standards and practices to help airport industry practitioners develop and implement effective programs for delivering both routine notifications as well as incident and emergency-related notifications. The guidance provides readers with the ability to customize their programs to match their unique circumstances.
TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Research Report 38: Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments explores how to conduct benefit-cost analyses (BCAs). A BCA is an analytical framework used to evaluate public investment decisions including transportation investments. BCA is defined as a collection of methods and rules for assessing the social costs and benefits of alternative public policies. It promotes efficiency by identifying the set of feasible projects that would yield the largest positive net benefi
An adequate, well-trained, and diverse health care workforce is essential for providing access to quality health care services. However, despite more than a decade of concerted global action to address the health workforce crisis, collective efforts are falling short in scaling up the supply of health workers. The resulting health workforce shortage affects people’s access to quality health care around the globe. In October 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore resources for financing health professional education in high-, middle
A March 28, 2017 report from TRB's Research and Technology Coordinating Committee (RTCC) to the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) offers recommendations addressing the barriers to deploying private-sector innovations and technologies; the evaluation of demonstration programs deploying technologies and pilot testing user-fee financing mechanisms; the completion of case studies of FHWA's research and technology program; and planning for a research and technology program to address the major challenges facing highway transportation for Congress's next transportation authorization. The RT
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 840: A Watershed Approach to Mitigating Stormwater Impacts provides a practical decision-making framework that will enable state departments of transportation (DOTs) to identify and implement offsite cost-effective and environmentally beneficial water quality solutions for stormwater impacts when onsite treatment and/or mitigation is not possible within the right-of-way. The report is accompanied by the
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 226: Data Visualization Methods for Transportation Agencies provides techniques for planners who have various levels of experience with displaying and reporting information in a visual format. The publication includes practices for developing visualization skills, enhancing transportation analysis, and improving public engagement.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Prorgram (ACRP) Web-Only Document 31: Improving Stakeholder Engagement in Aircraft Accident Response Planning provides guidance to assist airport personnel who seek to engage with accident response stakeholders beyond the boundaries of the airport and outside of those typically engaged for mutual aid agreements in support of the airport. A customizable Aircraft Accident Management and Guidance (AAMG) Tool ac
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 191: Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships. This guidebook serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives. A
Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) provides biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the research, development, and analysis programs at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), focusing on ballistics sciences, human sciences, information sciences, materials sciences, and mechanical sciences. This biennial report summarizes the findings of the ARLTAB from the reviews conducted by the panels in 2015 and 2016 and subsumes the 2015-2016 interim report.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 166: Interpreting the Results of Airport Water Monitoring provides comprehensive guidance and a set of tools that operators of airports of varying sizes can use to understand, diagnose, and interpret airport water quality. This guidebook addresses water leaving the airport that does not go to an off-site treatment facility. Accompanying the report are the following tools to assist practitioners in diagnosing root causes and possible sources of specific problems that may require attention or mitigation:
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 836: Guidelines for Emergency Ventilation Smoke Control in Roadway Tunnels presents guidelines for ventilation in roadway tunnels to facilitate human evacuation and emergency responder safety. These guidelines consider tunnel geometrics such as tunnel altitude; physical dimensions (i.e., length, cross section); type of traffic flow (i.e., single or bi-directional flow); and fan utilization and placement. They also consider cargo types and quantities as they pertain to fire heat release rates (FHRRs) and ventilation req
TRB's National Cooperative Research Program (NCHRP) Report 841: Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments quantifies the safety benefits of four types of pedestrian crossing treatments—rectangular rapid flashing beacons, pedestrian hybrid beacons, pedestrian refuge islands, and advanced YIELD or STOP markings and signs—and presents a crash modification factor (CMF) for each treatment type. This information, which is suitable for inclusion in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual,
Hepatitis B and C cause most cases of hepatitis in the United States and the world. The two diseases account for about a million deaths a year and 78 percent of world’s hepatocellular carcinoma and more than half of all fatal cirrhosis. In 2013 viral hepatitis, of which hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common types, surpassed HIV and AIDS to become the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. The world now has the tools to prevent hepatitis B and cure hepatitis C. Perfect vaccination could eradicate HBV, but it would take two generations at least. In the mea
Military operations produce a great deal of trash in an environment where standard waste management practices may be subordinated to more pressing concerns. As a result, ground forces have long relied on incineration in open-air pits as a means of getting rid of refuse. Concerns over possible adverse effects of exposure to smoke from trash burning in the theater were first expressed in the wake of the 1990–1991 Gulf War and stimulated a series of studies that indicated that exposures to smoke from oil-well fires and from other combustion sources, including waste burning, were stressors for t
At the request of the Advisory Committee for Geosciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF), a review of the Geospace Section of the NSF Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences was undertaken in 2015. The Portfolio Review Committee was charged with reviewing the portfolio of facilities, research programs, and activities funded by Geospace Section and to recommend critical capabilities and the balance of investments needed to enable the science program articulated in the 2013 NRC decadal survey Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society. The Portfolio Revi
In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 125: Multiagency Electronic Fare Payment Systems describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. This synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.
Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.