TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 229: Methods and Technologies for Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection: Phase 2 explores automated count technologies that capture pedestrian and bicycle volume data. The publication focuses on technologies that came onto the market too late to be included in previous Phase 1 research. Findings from Phase 1 are documented in NCHRP Report 797: Guidebook on Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection and
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Legal Research Digest (LRD) 48: Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customer
Federal government statistics provide critical information to the country and serve a key role in a democracy. For decades, sample surveys with instruments carefully designed for particular data needs have been one of the primary methods for collecting data for federal statistics. However, the costs of conducting such surveys have been increasing while response rates have been declining, and many surveys are not able to fulfill growing demands for more timely information and for more detailed information at state and local levels. Innovations in Federal Statistics examines the opportuni
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 836: Guidelines for Emergency Ventilation Smoke Control in Roadway Tunnels presents guidelines for ventilation in roadway tunnels to facilitate human evacuation and emergency responder safety. These guidelines consider tunnel geometrics such as tunnel altitude; physical dimensions (i.e., length, cross section); type of traffic flow (i.e., single or bi-directional flow); and fan utilization and placement. They also consider cargo types and quantities as they pertain to fire heat release rates (FHRRs) and ventilation req
Communities provide the context in which programs, principles, and policies are implemented. Their needs dictate the kinds of programs that community organizers and advocates, program developers and implementers, and researchers will bring to bear on a problem. Their characteristics help determine whether a program will succeed or fail. The detailed workings of programs cannot be separated from the communities in which they are embedded. Communities also represent the front line in addressing many behavioral health conditions experienced by children, adolescents, young adults, and their fami
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 50: Improved Models for Risk Assessment of Runway Safety Areas analyzes aircraft veer-offs, the use of declared distances, the implementation of the Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS), and the incorporation of a risk approach for consideration of obstacles in or in the vicinity of the runway safety area (RSA). An interactive risk analysis tool, updated in 2017, quantifies risk and support planning and engineering decisions when determining RSA requirements to meet an acceptable level of safety for various types and sizes of ai
Recent years have yielded significant advances in computing and communication technologies, with profound impacts on society. Technology is transforming the way we work, play, and interact with others. From these technological capabilities, new industries, organizational forms, and business models are emerging. Technological advances can create enormous economic and other benefits, but can also lead to significant changes for workers. IT and automation can change the way work is conducted, by augmenting or replacing workers in specific tasks. This can shift the demand for some types of human
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 504: Strategic Program Delivery Methods explores holistic approaches to maximizing the benefits of time and cost savings when delivering transportation programs, rather than delivering individual projects. While a considerable amount of published research has focused on the process of selecting an optimal project delivery method, this report documents how implementing a variety of delivery methods strategically for a program of projects can improve the delivery of the entire program.
The 2012 National Research Council report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, identified the development and use of resilience measures as critical to building resilient communities. Although many kinds of resilience measures and measuring tools have and continue to be developed, very few communities consistently use them as part of their planning or resilience building efforts. Since federal or top-down programs to build resilience often yield mixed results, bottom-up approaches are needed, but are often difficult for communities to implement alone. A major challenge for many
Regenerative medicine holds the potential to create living, functional cells and tissues that can be used to repair or replace those that have suffered potentially irreparable damage due to disease, age, traumatic injury, or genetic and congenital defects. The field of regenerative medicine is broad and includes research and development components of gene and cell therapies, tissue engineering, and non-biologic constructs. Although regenerative medicine has the potential to improve health and deliver economic benefits, this relatively new field faces challenges to developing policies and proce
TRB's E-Circular 219: The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Smart City Challenge and the Federal Transit Administration’s Mobility on Demand Sandbox: Advancing Multimodal Mobility and Best Practices Workshop features presentations and dialogue from a January 8, 2017 workshop at the TRB Annual Meeting. The workshop explored the role of public transit, shared mobility, and advanced technology (including connected and automated vehicle technology, sensing, cameras, etc.) in the recent competitions, along with next steps and plans for researching the pilot projects and documenting best pract
The United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is moving towards a sustained assessment process that allows for more fluid and consistent integration of scientific knowledge into the mandated quadrennial National Climate Assessment. As part of this process, the USGCRP is developing the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR), a technical report that details the current state-of-science relating to climate change and its physical impacts. The CSSR is intended to focus on climate change in the United States and to inform future USGCRP products. Review of the Draft Climate Science S
On March 14, 2017, TRB’s Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Committee and Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Committee sent a joint letter report to Walter C. "Butch" Waidelich, Jr., acting deputy administrator of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and Frederick G. "Bud" Wright, executive director of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The report addresses reductions in funding for research, development, and technology in the Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act and the implications for the LTPP and LTBP programs. In resp
A March 13, 2017 letter report from TRB's Motor Carrier Safety Research Analysis Committee (MCSRAC) advises the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Research and Technology (R&T) program on a number of topics. At the request of the FMCSA, this first letter report explores the goals and strategy of the FMCSA R&T Program as well as the recommendations regarding data made in the 2016 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report,
Since the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), health care reform has created major changes in the U.S. health care system. The ACA has brought millions of people into the system who had no previous access, and many of these newly enrolled individuals have had limited experience navigating the complex and complicated U.S. health system. In July 2016 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a public workshop to examine health insurance through the lens of health literacy, focusing on literacy related barriers to information and coverag
In the U.S. criminal justice system in 2014, an estimated 2.2 million people were in incarcerated or under correctional supervision on any given day, and another 4.7 million were under community supervision, such as probation or parole. Among all U.S. adults, 1 in 31 is involved with the criminal justice system, many of them having had recurring encounters. The ability to measure the effects of criminal justice involvement and incarceration on health and health disparities has been a challenge, due largely to limited and inconsistent measures on criminal justice involvement and any data on i
Compared with other disease areas, central nervous system (CNS) disorders have had the highest failure rate for new compounds in advanced clinical trials. Most CNS drugs fail because of efficacy, and the core issue underlying these problems is a poor understanding of disease biology. Concern about the poor productivity in neuroscience drug development has gained intensity over the past decade, amplified by a retraction in investment from the pharmaceutical industry. This retreat by industry has been fueled by the high failure rate of compounds in advanced clinical trials for nervous system dis
Between 1973 and 2016, the ways to manipulate DNA to endow new characteristics in an organism (that is, biotechnology) have advanced, enabling the development of products that were not previously possible. What will the likely future products of biotechnology be over the next 5–10 years? What scientific capabilities, tools, and/or expertise may be needed by the regulatory agencies to ensure they make efficient and sound evaluations of the likely future products of biotechnology? Preparing for Future Products of Biotechnology analyzes the future landscape of biotechnology products an
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, unedited version of Research Report 843: Long-Term Field Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies. The report compares material properties and field performance of warm mix asphalt (WMA) and control hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement sections constructed at 28 locations across the United States between 2005 and 2012 and evaluated in the period 2012 through 2015.
Science and technology are embedded in virtually every aspect of modern life. As a result, people face an increasing need to integrate information from science with their personal values and other considerations as they make important life decisions about medical care, the safety of foods, what to do about climate change, and many other issues. Communicating science effectively, however, is a complex task and an acquired skill. Moreover, the approaches to communicating science that will be most effective for specific audiences and circumstances are not obvious. Fortunately, there is an expandi
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, unedited version of Research Report 847: Variability of Ignition Furnace Correction Factors. The report explores the significant influences that affect the variability of asphalt and aggregate correction factors for ignition furnaces and presents a proposed practice in American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) standard format for installation, operation, and maintenance of ignition furnaces to minimize the variability in correction factors between furnaces.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 502: Practices for Establishing Contract Completion Dates for Highway Projects documents current methodologies and procedures used by state transportation agencies to estimate contract time for various highway project delivery methods. Establishing contract time is an important part of the highway project development process because it directly impacts project costs, the public, and risk for contractors.
Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have responsibilities for evaluating and regulating respiratory protective devices (“respirators”) for health care workers. Respirators protect the user from respiratory hazards by either removing contaminants from the air (air-purifying respirators) or by supplying clean air from another source (air-supplying respirators). Respirators that are used in workplaces in the United States must be approved by NIOSH and meet standards and test results specified by regulation. Respira
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Web-Only Document 30: Development of a NOx Chemistry Module for EDMS/AEDT to Predict NO2 Concentrations explores the methods available for predicting NO2 concentrations at airports. The research project includes a final report, preferred method for employing a module, and a computer model code for the preferred method.
The importance of higher education has never been clearer. Educational attainment—the number of years a person spends in school—strongly predicts adult earnings, as well as health and civic engagement. Yet relative to other developed nations, educational attainment in the United States is lagging, with young Americans who heretofore led the world in completing postsecondary degrees now falling behind their global peers. As part of a broader national college completion agenda aimed at increasing college graduation rates, higher education researchers and policy makers are exploring the role
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 225: Appendices to NCHRP Research Report 842 contains nine appendices to NCHRP Research Report 842: Mapping Heavy Vehicle Noise Source Heights for Highway Noise Analysis. NCHRP Research Report 842 provides an analysis to determine height distributions and spectral content for heavy vehicle noise sources. The report also explores establishing and beginning the development of an extended heavy vehicle (truck and bu
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 842: Mapping Heavy Vehicle Noise Source Heights for Highway Noise Analysis provides an analysis to determine height distributions and spectral content for heavy vehicle noise sources. The report also explores establishing and beginning the development of an extended heavy vehicle (truck and bus) noise source database for incorporation into traffic noise models, including future versions of the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Transportation Noise Model (TNM) acoustical code. Accompanying the report is
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 127: Addressing Difficult Customer Situations considers issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.
Military operations produce a great deal of trash in an environment where standard waste management practices may be subordinated to more pressing concerns. As a result, ground forces have long relied on incineration in open-air pits as a means of getting rid of refuse. Concerns over possible adverse effects of exposure to smoke from trash burning in the theater were first expressed in the wake of the 1990–1991 Gulf War and stimulated a series of studies that indicated that exposures to smoke from oil-well fires and from other combustion sources, including waste burning, were stressors for t
Educating dual language learners (DLLs) and English learners (ELs) effectively is a national challenge with consequences both for individuals and for American society. Despite their linguistic, cognitive, and social potential, many ELs—who account for more than 9 percent of enrollment in grades K-12 in U.S. schools—are struggling to meet the requirements for academic success, and their prospects for success in postsecondary education and in the workforce are jeopardized as a result. Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures examines
In October 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a meeting to consider the Fourth Industrial Revolution and its implications for manufacturing, as well as its likely social and economic effects. The meeting also explored the cross-sector collaboration between government, universities, and industry needed to accommodate emerging developments in the key technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, namely artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, and the Internet of Things. This publication briefly summarizes the presentations and discussions
TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Research Report 37: Using Commodity Flow Survey Microdata and Other Establishment Data to Estimate the Generation of Freight, Freight Trips, and Service Trips: Guidebook provides policy makers with improved establishment-level models that estimate the Freight Trip Generation (FTG), the number of vehicle trips produced and attracted at a given establishment; the Freight Production (FP), the amount of cargo produced by the establishment; and the Service Trip Attraction (STA), and the number of vehicle trips that arrive at the establishm
Most countries in the world use the SI (Système International, also known as the metric system) units for radiation measurements in commercial and technical activities. The United States, in contrast, uses a mix of SI and conventional units for radiation measurements, despite 30-year-old national and international recommendations to exclusively use SI. Radiation professionals in the United States are faced with the need to understand both systems and make conversions between the two. In September 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a workshop to exp
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 505: Current Practices and Guidelines for the Reuse of Bridge Foundations provides guidance on reusing bridge foundations, a sustainable option for many bridge replacement and rehabilitation efforts that can result in time and cost savings as well as reduced mobility impacts and environmental benefits. However, foundation reuse presents significant challenges, including uncertainties in existing foundation condition, remaining service life, and capacity. This synthesis documents current practices and guidelines used by trans
Produced water—water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil and gas production—is the greatest volume byproduct associated with oil and gas production. It is managed by some combination of underground injection, treatment and subsequent use, treatment and discharge, or evaporation, subject to compliance with state and federal regulations. Management of these waters is challenging not only for industry and regulators, but also for landowners and the public because of differences in the quality and quantity of produced water, varying infrastructure needs, costs
The concept of utilizing big data to enable scientific discovery has generated tremendous excitement and investment from both private and public sectors over the past decade, and expectations continue to grow. Using big data analytics to identify complex patterns hidden inside volumes of data that have never been combined could accelerate the rate of scientific discovery and lead to the development of beneficial technologies and products. However, producing actionable scientific knowledge from such large, complex data sets requires statistical models that produce reliable inferences (NRC, 2013
The term “service-learning” generally refers to projects planned as components of academic coursework in which students use knowledge and skills taught in the course to address real needs in their communities. This kind of learning experience, which allows students to focus on critical, reflective thinking and civic responsibility, has become an increasingly popular component of undergraduate science education. In April 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned a workshop to explore the current and potential role of service-learning in undergraduate geos
This is the fourth in a series of five letter reports that provide an independent review of the more than 30 evidence reports that NASA has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights.This letter report reviews eight evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input.
Undergraduate research has a rich history, and many practicing researchers point to undergraduate research experiences (UREs) as crucial to their own career success. There are many ongoing efforts to improve undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education that focus on increasing the active engagement of students and decreasing traditional lecture-based teaching, and UREs have been proposed as a solution to these efforts and may be a key strategy for broadening participation in STEM. In light of the proposals questions have been asked about what is known about
TRB's Committee on the Review of Department of Transportation (DOT) Testing of Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Brakes has prepared a letter report reviewing DOT’s plan to evaluate the emergency performance of ECP brakes with other braking systems. Congress directed DOT to reconsider the ECP braking requirement for certain trains carrying high-hazard flammable liquids. The report recommends improvements to ensure that DOT's plan will lead to objective, accurate, and reliable tests of key assumptions the department made in comparing ECP emergency braking performance to other braking
Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.