The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board (ARLTAB) provides biennial assessments of the scientific and technical quality of the research, development, and analysis programs at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), focusing on ballistics sciences, human sciences, information sciences, materials sciences, and mechanical sciences. This biennial report summarizes the findings of the ARLTAB from the reviews conducted by the panels in 2015 and 2016 and subsumes the 2015-2016 interim report.
Countering violent extremism consists of various prevention and intervention approaches to increase the resilience of communities and individuals to radicalization toward violent extremism, to provide nonviolent avenues for expressing grievances, and to educate communities about the threat of recruitment and radicalization to violence. To explore the application of health approaches in community-level strategies to countering violent extremism and radicalization, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public workshop in September 2016. Participants explored the ev
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Legal Research Digest 73: Primer on Patentability and Use of Ideas Developed by Contractors Performing Work for State and Federal Transportation and Local Planning Agencies summarizes federal and state patent laws and then reviews the similarities and differences between the two. It also discusses and distinguishes patentability issues concerning inventions by contractors for federal contracts, federally funded state and local government contracts, and state and local government contracts sourced by state and local funds. The balance
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 506: Effective Utility Coordination: Application of Research and Current Practices documents the state of the practice regarding utility coordination. The objective of the project was to determine how previous research has been incorporated into current practice and compile information about how transportation agencies and utility stakeholders are scoping, conducting, and managing effective utility coordination. The report documents the core elements of effective utility coordination, as reported by state transportation agen
Gulf Coast communities and natural resources suffered extensive direct and indirect damage as a result of the largest accidental oil spill in US history, referred to as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Notably, natural resources affected by this major spill include wetlands, coastal beaches and barrier islands, coastal and marine wildlife, seagrass beds, oyster reefs, commercial fisheries, deep benthos, and coral reefs, among other habitats and species. Losses include an estimated 20% reduction in commercial fishery landings across the Gulf of Mexico and damage to as much as 1,100 linear
Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures betwee
The volume and complexity of information about individual patients is greatly increasing with use of electronic records and personal devices. Potential effects on medical product development in the context of this wealth of real-world data could be numerous and varied, ranging from the ability to determine both large-scale and patient-specific effects of treatments to the ability to assess how therapeutics affect patients’ lives through measurement of lifestyle changes. In October 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop to facilitate dialogue am
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 837: Performance-Related Specifications for Emulsified Asphaltic Binders Used in Preservation Surface Treatments presents emulsion performance grade (EPG) specifications for asphalt emulsions used in three pavement preservation surface treatments (PSTs): chip seal, microsurfacing, and spray seals. These EPG specifications are climate-driven and applicable to traffic loads that are anticipated during the service life of each PST. The report also presents suggested test protocols for evaluating some of the properties of
Genome editing is a powerful new tool for making precise alterations to an organism’s genetic material. Recent scientific advances have made genome editing more efficient, precise, and flexible than ever before. These advances have spurred an explosion of interest from around the globe in the possible ways in which genome editing can improve human health. The speed at which these technologies are being developed and applied has led many policymakers and stakeholders to express concern about whether appropriate systems are in place to govern these technologies and how and when the public shou
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 189: Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces provides treatment strategies to prevent incidents and improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces. The research focused on rail transit systems with level or near level boarding where the vehicle floors are level or near level with the platform.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 503: Leveraging Technology for Transportation Agency Workforce Development and Training documents how state and local transportation agencies are using information and communication technologies (ICT) to train their workforce. The report explores the planning and resources required to implement and maintain a training and development program and assists agencies that are considering ways to implement, improve, or expand ICT-supported training programs.
Multimodal therapy approaches that combine interventions aimed at different aspects of disease are emerging as potential—and perhaps essential—ways to enhance clinical outcomes for patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to examine the general principles underlying multimodal therapies and to explore challenges, potential barriers, and opportunities for their development, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in June 2016. Participants explored scientific, clinical, regulatory, and reimbursement issues related to multimodal
The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is an interagency program, established by the Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990, mandated by Congress to “assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change”. Since the USGCRP began, scientific understanding of global change has increased and the information needs of the nation have changed dramatically. A better understanding of what is changing and why can help decision makers in the public and private sectors cope with ongoing change. Accomplishm
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 124: Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons le
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Legal Research Digest 31: Preemption of Worker-Retention and Labor-Peace Agreements at Airports serves as an overview of issues related to labor-harmony or labor-peace agreements for airport management personnel and other interested personnel, including airport authority board members or elected officials. These agreements generally require that, as a condition of operating on-airport property, an organization must become signatory to some form of an agreement with a labor organization. These matters are usually injected into the conduct of on-
The Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally, in partnership with the Jacobs Foundation, the Institute for Human Development at Aga Khan University, and the Bernard van Leer Foundation, convened its ninth and final workshop in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on October 20–21, 2016, to explore topics related to innovations in investing in young children globally. During the course of the 2-day workshop, researchers, policy makers, program practitioners, industry partners, funders, and other experts came together to highlight innovative research, policy, business models, and implementation s
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 500: Control of Concrete Cracking in Bridges provides information on methods used to control concrete cracking in bridge superstructures and substructures, and on the influence of cracking on long-term durability. Cracking of concrete in bridges continues to be a concern for bridge owners, particularly with bridge decks exposed to severe environments. The control of cracking for aesthetic, durability, and structural reasons becomes increasingly important as service-life goals are extended and higher-strength concrete, higher
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 126: Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus operator training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and incidents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology applications, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incenti
The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel & Readiness), referred to throughout this report as P&R, is responsible for the total force management of all Department of Defense (DoD) components including the recruitment, readiness, and retention of personnel. Its work and policies are supported by a number of organizations both within DoD, including the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC), and externally, including the federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) that work for DoD. P&R must be able to answer questions for the Secretary of Defense such as how to recruit
Federal guidance on nutrition and diet is intended to reflect the state of the science and deliver the most reliable recommendations possible according to the best available evidence. This guidance, updated and presented every 5 years in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), serves as the basis for all federal nutrition policies and nutrition assistance programs, as well as nutrition education programs. Despite the use of the guidelines over the past 30 years, recent challenges prompted Congress to question the process by which food and nutrition guidance is developed. This report asse
In May 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a workshop on Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability. Speakers at the workshop discussed the history and practice of cryptography, its current challenges, and its future possibilities. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 227: Design of Interchange Loop Ramps and Pavement/Shoulder Cross-Slope Breaks is presented in two parts. Part 1 presents design guidance for interchange loop ramps based on observational field studies and safety analyses and includes suggestions for the next edition of A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Part 2 assesses AASHTO’s current design policy for pavement/shoulder cross-slope breaks on su
Both the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have responsibilities for evaluating and regulating respiratory protective devices (“respirators”) for health care workers. Respirators protect the user from respiratory hazards by either removing contaminants from the air (air-purifying respirators) or by supplying clean air from another source (air-supplying respirators). Respirators that are used in workplaces in the United States must be approved by NIOSH and meet standards and test results specified by regulation. Respira
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Legal Research Digest 74: Liability of State Departments of Transportation for Design Errors covers liability insurance for design errors and omissions. It also examines public construction law, professional liability, and product warranties. This study demonstrates that litigation has defined the parameters of a transportation department’s liability for design errors or omissions. State tort- and sovereign-immunity statutes may shield an agency from liability. If the state has waived its immunity for certain claims, however, the tr
At the request of the Advisory Committee for Geosciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF), a review of the Geospace Section of the NSF Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences was undertaken in 2015. The Portfolio Review Committee was charged with reviewing the portfolio of facilities, research programs, and activities funded by Geospace Section and to recommend critical capabilities and the balance of investments needed to enable the science program articulated in the 2013 NRC decadal survey Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society. The Portfolio Revi
The United States has long recognized that the nation’s prosperity and security depend on how we address challenges of disasters, poverty, famine, and disease around the world. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has played a vital role in promoting U.S. national and international interests by advancing strategies for employing science, technology, and innovation to respond to global challenges. The focus by USAID on science, technology, and innovation is critical to improve development outcomes. At the core of this progress is the engagement of science institutions and oth
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 501: Pavement Management Systems: Putting Data to Work documents current pavement management practices in state and provincial transportation agencies. The report focuses on the use of pavement management analysis results for resource allocation, determining treatment cost-effectiveness, program development, and communication with stakeholders.
TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) has released a non-edited, prepublication version of Research Report 38: Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments. The report explores how to conduct benefit-cost analyses (BCAs). A BCA is an analytical framework used to evaluate public investment decisions including transportation investments. BCA is defined as a collection of methods and rules for assessing the social costs and benefits of alternative public policies. It promotes efficiency by identifying the set of f
This volume presents papers on the topics covered at the National Academy of Engineering's 2016 US Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. Every year the symposium brings together 100 outstanding young leaders in engineering to share their cutting-edge research and innovations in selected areas. The 2016 symposium was held September 19-21 at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The intent of this book is to convey the excitement of this unique meeting and to highlight innovative developments in engineering research and technical work.
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has released the second edition of Research Report 72: Guidebook for Selecting Methods to Monitor Airport and Aircraft Deicing Materials. The report provides a step-by-step process for identifying, evaluating, and selecting methods to monitor stormwater that is subject to runoff containing deicing materials. The report addresses identifying the parameters to be monitored and discusses the appropriateness of various monitoring methods and instrument types to meet an airport’s specific needs. The report also provides guidance for setup, opera
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 834: Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook presents guidance on the application of crossing solutions at roundabouts and channelized turn lanes at signalized intersections for pedestrians with vision disabilities. This publication will be of interest to engineers tasked with designing a particular site, planners and decision makers at the municipal and state government levels, and others. NCHRP Research Report 834 is supplemented by
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Results Digest 113: Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 499: Alternate Design/Alternate Bid Process for Pavement-Type Selection documents the state of the practice in alternate design/alternate bid (ADAB) for pavement-type selection by highway agencies. ADAB is a contracting technique that allows the pavement-type selection decision to be made as part of the procurement process. Contractors are permitted to bid their preferred pavement-type alternative using real-time market pricing for the paving materials.
Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.